Botticelli_Venus_Head_Shot_2.jpgThe Florentine Renaissance
How the Florentine masters revolutionised painting.

The vision of Giotto was the catalyst for an artistic revolution in Florence. Over the duration of the Renaissance, painting was transformed from church ornamentation to a form of individual human expression.

Che_Alberto_Korda.jpgThe Politics of Che Guevara
Icon, yes. Hero, no.

His image, worn on merchandise across the globe, represents the struggle for freedom and justice but his life and politics were not always admirable.

William_Shakespeare_1609.jpgThe Birth of English Literature
The emergence of a tradition of writing in English.

The invention of moveable type, the English Reformation and the work of brilliant playwrights like Shakespeare all played a role in the blossoming of written English.

Zeus.jpgMinoan Religion and the Ancient Greeks
Minoan civilisation had a profound effect on the religion of the Ancient Greeks.

Minoan religion came to influence and merge with that of the Mycenaeans and other mainland Greek societies. In particular, the Minoan Gods provided inspiration and served as models for many of the later Greek deities.

Propaganda_Pinar_Cuba.jpgAn Assessment of the Cuban Revolution
Has it all been worth it?

In 1959, the Cuban Revolution saw dictator Fulgencio Batista replaced by the socialist Fidel Castro. The human rights record of the Communist regime has been roundly criticised but, for the majority of Cubans, quality of life has improved under Castro.

Hannibal.jpgThe Genius of Hannibal
One of history's greatest generals.

While he ultimately failed in his quest to defeat Rome, the fact that Rome and many other civilisations came to adopt his military tactics is testament to his ability as a general.

George_Orwell.jpgThe Barcelona May Days
When Anarchists fought Communists over the fate of the Spanish Republic.

The Spanish Republic was supported primarily by the Soviet Union, which in the early days of the Civil War provided weapons and armoured vehicles. Thus, Soviet advisors possessed nearly limitless power within the republic.

First_Punic_War.pngRoman Motives in the First Punic War
Were the Romans engaging in self-defence or aggression?

The First Punic War (264-241 BC) is often described as a classic example of a matter that got out of hand. To understand how such a seemingly insignificant conflict began Roman expansion throughout the Mediterranean, their initial motives must be analysed.

Quinquereme-and-corvus.jpgTwo Essays on the Birth of the Roman Navy
Arrogance, enterprise, determination and patriotism.

The development and redevelopment of a navy during the First Punic War exemplified qualities that were key to Roman dominance in the following centuries. In the face of challenges and setbacks, patriotism prevailed...
Studying the navy’s development and how it was sustained reveals that the Romans were resourceful, courageous, determined and loyal to their country. They were insightful and resourceful when it came to building the fleet, especially as they had no previous experience. They were also brave and daring when they attacked the Carthaginians...

Pergamon_Trajanstempel.JPGLandscape and Destiny in Asia Minor
The influence of geography on the history of Smyrna, Halikarnassos, and Pergamon.

The social, cultural and political history of a city is directly affected by the landscape to which it belongs. Some prime examples are Smyrna, Halikarnassos, and Pergamon....