Contents | Ancient | Early Medieval | Medieval | Renaissance | Modern | Contemporary

CLIO: ANCIENT HISTORY to the FIFTH CENTURY.


Ancient Times to the Macedonians


The World of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest epics in world literature…. The epic reveals many things about the society that created it.
Danielle Dencio, 2007

Hammurabi's Code
The Code of Hammurabi is an enthralling document that reveals much about both the man behind it, and the kingdom he controlled.
Blaise Joseph, 2009.

Minoan Religion and the Ancient Greeks
Minoan religion came to influence and merge with that of the Mycenaeans and other mainland Greek societies. In particular, the Minoan Gods provided inspiration and served as models for many of the later Greek deities.
Tom Hermes, 2011.

Did King David Exist?
While it seems likely that David has some basis in historical reality, one would expect more archaeological evidence if the accounts of 2 Samuel of a mighty king were true.
Henry Ingham, 2012.

The Persian Wars
The Persian invasions of 490 and 480/79 played a major role in the Athenian rise to power and the political climate of Greece, particularly during the interbellum period and the second invasion.
Frazer Brown, 2009.

The Graeco Persian Wars Compared(490 and 480-79 BCE)
The invasions of the Greek mainland by the Persians in 490 and 480-479 BCE revealed much about the cultural values of each side, and perhaps only with the exception of the Hellenes at Troy, established for the first time in Greece what it meant to be part of a collective identity.
James Batchelor, 2009.

The Greek Victory at Marathon
The question of which city state, Athens or Sparta, did the most to defeat the Persians is a complex one. Herodotus makes his position clear, “one is surely right in saying that Greece was saved by the Athenians.”
Emily Hood, 1996

The Nature of Athenian democracy
Athens operated on a franchise that today we would find unacceptably narrow. Of the estimated 150 000 residents of the city state of Attica, only about one fifth held the privilege of citizenship.
Nick Ewbank, 2009

Plato's Critique of Democracy
Plato lamented the prevailing rule of the incapable and corrupt and advocated rule not by the greatest orator or panderer but by the greatest and most morally righteous of citizens.
Tom Hermes, 2011

The Delian League and the Athenian Empire
The evolution of the Delian League into the Athenian Empire occurred over thirty to forty years. While the League was initially established for the collective security of the member states, Athenian interests soon dominated. Pat Quinn Quirke, 2012.

The Origins of the Peloponnesian War
The fear between Athens and Sparta was the long-term cause of the Peloponnesian War. Athens’ reliance on its naval superiority was a short-term cause, as this caused it to risk provocation in the Corcyra affair.
Robert Joseph, 2009

Slavery in Ancient Greece
Slavery was the backbone to the strength and greatness of the ancient Greeks. Slave labour allowed the citizens of Athens and Sparta to focus on the aspects of life they thought important, whether that be developing a grand system of government and culture, or creating a military society to rival that of anywhere in the ancient world.
Ursula Cliff, 2009.

The Treatment of Athenian Slaves
How a slave fared in ancient Athens very much depended on what kind of slave they were. The household slave's proximity to their master meant they were more likely to be treated kindly. 'Entertaining' slaves had poor living conditions but, if lucky, they could improve their lot. Skilled craftsmen often got on quite well but it was the mining slaves who were treated more like animals than human beings.
Cait Smith, 2011.

Landscape and Destiny in Asia Minor
The social, cultural and political history of a city is directly affected by the landscape to which it belongs. Some prime examples are Smyrna, Halikarnassos, and Pergamon.
Frazer Brown, 2011.

The Etruscans
Although little is known of their origin, artefacts left behind by the Etruscans give insight to their culture and lifestyle.
Deb Mak, 2009.

Identifying the Etruscans
The Etruscans were a part of early Roman legend, as well as being influential in its historical beginnings as well.
Jack Percival, 2008.

From Alexander to Caesar



Alexander’s Macedonian army
The Macedonian army of Alexander the Great was a wonder of military organisation, tactical superiority, and battlefield discipline.
Lachlan McColl, 2007

Roman Motives in the First Punic War
The First Punic War (264-241 BC) is often described as a classic example of a matter that got out of hand. To understand how such a seemingly insignificant conflict began Roman expansion throughout the Mediterranean, their initial motives must be analysed.
Ellen Miech, 2011

The Romans and the First Punic War
Studying the navy’s development and how it was sustained reveals that the Roman’s were resourceful, courageous, determined and loyal to their country. They were insightful and resourceful when it came to building the fleet, especially as they had no previous experience. They were also brave and daring when they attacked the Carthaginians. Lauren Slater, 2011

The Birth of the Roman Navy;
The development and redevelopment of a navy during the First Punic War exemplified qualities that were key to Roman dominance in the following centuries. In the face of challenges and setbacks, patriotism prevailed.
Patrick Quinn Quirke, 2011.

The Genius of Hannibal;
While he ultimately failed in his quest to defeat Rome, the fact that Rome and many other civilisations came to adopt his military tactics is testament to his ability as a general.
Jack Herring, 2011.

The Military Reforms of Caius Marius
Marius, seven times Consul, is best remembered for his dramatic reforms to the Roman military system.
Oscar Vancea 2007

Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius
The rivalry between Lucius Cornelius Sulla and Gaius Marius was one the most intense in the history of the Roman Republic.
Duncan Grey, 2010.

The Roman Theatre
Juvenal once said that his fellow Romans were only interested in panem et circenses ‘bread and circuses’, that is, their stomachs and their entertainment...
Ursula Cliff, 2009

The Assassination of Caesar
The assassination of Gaius Julius Caesar was one of the climactic events of the late Roman Republic.
Duncan Grey 2009.

Imperial Rome to the 5th Century


The Achievements of Augustus Caesar
The building program required the importation of great quantities of marble from around the Mediterranean. He also established the Principate, a system of government that was equipped to deal with the large areas of land now possessed by Rome, to which he largely brought peace.
Frazer Brown, 2009.

Augustus and Propaganda
It was Augustus’ sustained and skilful ability to ‘manage the message’ that kept power in his hands. Nick Ewbank, 2010.

Pliny the Governor and Pliny the Writer
The writer and statesman Pliny the Younger (C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus) is an eminent source on Roman society and politics during the first century C.E.
Ian Dehlsen, 2009.

How the 'Jesus cult' Captured the Roman State
Christianity became the official Roman religion by the end of the 4th Century AD. It had emerged as a dominant faith because it was able to evolve to suit the needs and expectations of an evolving Roman society. Louise Adena, 2008.

On the Question of Constantine's Conversion to Christianity
Being the first of the Christian Roman Emperors,Constantine is regarded by many modern historians as the leading figure in the development and spread of the Christian religion. Jack Percival, 2008