Contents | Ancient | Early Medieval | Medieval | Renaissance | Modern | Contemporary


From 1050 AD to 1150 AD

1066 and afterwards, William the Conquerer did not win England in a single day. English resistance and rebellion continued for years after the battle of Hastings in 1066. James Andrew, 1997.

The Norman conquest of Sicily, The Norman conquest of Sicily was a result of earlier Norman involvement in the affairs of Southern Italy for almost half a century. Kelly Lane, 1997.

The Battle of Manzikert, The battle of Manzikert was such a shattering defeat that the Byzantines were never able to speak of it as other than "that terrible day." Rosemary Shaw, 1997.

On the Alexiad of Anna Comnena Anna Comnena's Alexiad has long been considered an invaluable historical source, not only for its detailed account of the reign of Alexius I, but also for the remarkable insight it gives into the Byzantine world of the middle ages. Muriel Joseph, 2001.

Pope Urban and the First Crusade, Pope Urban's motives in preaching the First Crusade are unclear. Sarah Hough, 2001.

Peter the Hermit and the First Crusade, A prominent figure in many historical accounts, Peter the Hermit is remembered for the part he played in the First Crusade. Freya Ovington. 2005.

From 1150 AD to 1250

Stephen's Claim to the Throne, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle informs us that King Henry I of England died in 1135. Before his death, he had forced all of the Baronage and the Church to swear fealty to his daughter Matilda. Rebecca Smith 1995

Eleanor of Aquitaine, a 'Foolish Woman'?, Elizabeth Hallam writes that Eleanor of Aquitaine, wife of King Louis VII of France and future wife of King Henry II of England, was a 'foolish woman'. Emma Thomas 1998

The failure of the Second Crusade, Unlike the spectacular success of the First Crusade, the Second Crusade, launched in 1145, is generally regarded as a disaster for the Christian West. Hue McCulloch 2005

The Reputation of Richard the Lionheart Richard the Lionheart was a great warrior but a poor king. One of the three leaders of the Third Crusade, Richard was deemed one of the most brilliant and courageous men alive and his fame spread before him into the East. Luke Williams 1996.

The Glorification of Richard I
Richard was a courageous military leader but writers of his time, both Arab and English, state that he could be ruthless and that his rash decisions risked disaster. Merredy Jackson, 2010.

The Children's Crusade?
Many ‘primary’ accounts recording the French Children’s Crusade were written many years after 1212 and are probably written as a reaction to the German’s Children Crusade. The only contemporary accounts written in France mention a movement by a large group of people towards Paris, where they seem to have all dispersed and gone their separate ways. Ruqiyah Patel, 2010.

Italy and the Crusades
Without active participation in the Crusades, and the ‘spark’ it provided to incite the ‘fire’ of Italy’s growth, it is unlikely Italy would have been able to so firmly establish itself as such a major economic power within medieval Europe, with such strength and in such a short space of time.
Ursula Cliff, 2010.

The murder of Thomas Becket Thomas Becket was the chancellor of England between 1155 and 1162. During his career as chancellor he proved himself to be a loyal and supportive subject of the king.Vanessa Reid 1997.

Richard de Clare, a 'true vassal' Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, known to history as 'Strongbow' was one of the Norman conquerors of Ireland during the reign of Henry II. His actions show him to have been a loyal vassal of Henry II, although Henry does not seem to have trusted him at first. Jessica Rogers, 2000.

The Canossa submission, 1077;
The events that lead to Emperor Heinrich’s submission at Canossa in 1077 are integral to understanding why the event had taken place and its significance.Tania Dalzell 2006

Hildegard of Bingen;
Hildegard of Bingen was born in AD 1098 near Mainz, in Germany, and was canonised after her death in 1179. Ben Corry 1992

The Career of Saladin Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub .. was one of Islam's greatest champions during the second half of the twelfth century...He was destined to win a great victory that would weaken Christendom’s stronghold in the Middle East. Imogen White 1998.

Saladin and the Horns of Hattin Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub was without doubt the greatest Muslim leader of the Twelfth Century. Bajro Smajic 2006

The Reign of King John Few Kings have left behind them such an unfortunate reputation as King John. Sorcha Rush 2003

The Incompetence of King John
From its very beginning to its very end, the reign of King John seemed marred by bad decisions and bad luck. Aaron Holland, 2012

The Papacy of Innocent III Pope Innocent the III is regarded as the most influential pope of the Middle Ages. Laura McGuffog 2008

The Reputation of Freidrich II Freidrich II, who lived between 1194 and 1250, was king of Sicily and Germany and the Holy Roman Emperor. He was called stupor mundi, the "wonder of the world". Emma Thomas 1999

Commercial development in Europe During the 11th and 12th Centuries, Europe underwent major changes in production and trade. Louise Adena 2008

From 1250 AD to 1450 AD

Medieval Anguillara, a study in Feudal Lordship Anguillara is a small Italian town situated just north of Rome on Lake Bracciano. During the early medieval period, like most such communities in Europe, the town was part of the feudal system. Juliet Edeson 1992.

Dante's love for Beatrice Beatrice Portinari is quite an obscure figure in history. That she is known at all is due to the works of Dante Alighieri. Claire Thompson 1999.

Significance of the stirrup in medieval warfare The medieval adoption of the stirrup, a piece of equipment unknown to the ancient world, is commonly held to have caused a revolution in the use of the horse for war. John Hood 1999.

The Teutonic Order The Teutonic Order, otherwise known as the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St. Mary of the Teutons in Jerusalem, was one of the many military Orders that existed in Europe and the Near East after the twelfth century. Imogen White 1999.|

The Limitations of Medieval Medicine The practice of medicine in the medieval period was limited by several factors; some of these were religious beliefs, a lack of scientific knowledge, the absence of formalized training and the influences of traditional practice. Merryn Peatling 1996.

Changing views of witchcraft in canon law Witch hunting was a problem first acknowledged as being part of the jurisdiction of the church in the late 13th century. Tania Dalzell 2006.

Making Sense of the Black Death
With the exception of some progressive thinkers, the majority of people blamed God, thinking that their sins had caused him to unleash the plague; they blamed earthquakes and the planets for causing deadly miasmas that corrupted the air they breathed; and, perhaps most incomprehensibly to people today, they blamed the Jews. Lydia Searle, 2012.

The Plight of the Jews in a Time of Plague There is little doubt that the Jewish communities of medieval Europe suffered as a result of rumours and persecutions. History is largely silent concerning these communities during the 14th century. Jacqui Winters 2006.

Intellectual activity in the High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages was a time of vigorous activity and transformation; an era in which theological and logical concepts were comprehensively explored by some of the greatest thinkers of the medieval world. James Batchelor 2009.