Contents | Ancient | Early Medieval | Medieval | Renaissance | Modern | Contemporary

CLIO: MODERN HISTORY (1700 - 1960)


1700 - 1900


Peter I and Catherine II
The 17th and 18th centuries saw the modernisation of Russia as it began to adopt the customs and ideals of the Western European nations. This change could not have occurred without the reigns of Peter I and Catherine II.
Deb Mak, 2009.

James Cook in perspective
Some contemporary views .. have sought to reduce the historical significance of Cook’s achievements, but those achievements are factual, historically verifiable and irreducible. Eugenie Joseph 2006.

Why Britain Lost Thirteen Colonies
In 1760, George III ascended to the throne in Britain. The young king inherited the responsibility of ruling over more people and more land than any previous English monarch. Harry Dalton, 2013.

The Boston Massacre
The ‘Boston Massacre’ demonstrates the different methods the colonial radicals used in order to sustain tensions with Britain.
Te Whenua Waaka-O'Keefe, 2013

The Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress was the de facto government for the United States during the American Revolution of the 18th Century. Lauren George, 2008.

The Cahiers de Doleances of 1789
In response to declining political stability in France the Estates General met in 1789. Representatives from the three Estates pooled lists of grievances, complaints and proposed reforms which are known as the Cahiers de Doléances. These cahiers were a clear starting point to the revolution, a statement of the grievances of each class. Sam Vancea 2008.

The Myall Creek Massacre and Its Legacy
On the tenth of June 1838, a group of eleven stockmen rode into Myall Creek with the intent of killing any ‘blacks’ they came across.
Caitlin Burnett, 2012

Elizabeth Guise, Canberra pioneer
In the quiet, peaceful cemetery of the church of St John the Baptist in Reid, ACT, lays the grave of Elizabeth Guise, who died in 1853. She was 91 years of age when she died. Behind the simple inscription on her gravestone is a fascinating story. Snowy Haiblen, 2006.

1900 - 1939


The Boxer Rebellion
The Boxer Rebellion was caused by an increase in foreign influence and power within China. These changes interfered with traditional culture and disrupted the dynamics of Chinese society. Maddie Brodie, 2008.

A History of the Bouzouki and its Music
In October 1932, the same year in which Aldous Huxley wrote Brave New World, a twenty seven year old musician in Athens, Markos Vamvakaris, reported to the technicians in the studios of Columbia Records Greece to make one of the first recordings of the bouzouki. John Hood, 2011.

The Great Debate
When we ask who was responsible for the outbreak of World War One, the most reasonable answer is simply, everyone. All the European powers involved in the war, great or small, must share in this responsibility. However, they do not share equally.
Caitlin McAnulty, 2010.

The Mechanization of Warfare
World War 1 led to significant developments in modern warfare in the creation of machine guns and tanks due to trench warfare, and a change in Britain’s economic structure. Emilie Adlide, 2008.

The Achievements of John Monash
His victories in 1918, while well planned and executed, were hardly visionary accomplishments. Nor were Monash’s skills unique among the British and Dominion Commanders at the end of the War. Duncan Grey, 2010.

The Great War and the Russian Revolution
Although the pressures of social change and revolution had been building up in Russia for decades prior to the First World War, the war destroyed the economy, ended the allegiance of the military and caused immense social upheaval. Conditions were ripe for revolutionary change.
Aaron Holland, 2013.

Revolution and Power

Both Lenin and Robespierre appealed to the masses and took advantage of their anger to gain their power. They both went on to struggle retaining this power and both leaders turned to horrific mass violence as a last resort. Both leaders, as a result, lost support for their cause.
Kate Crompton, 2013.

The Necessity of the New Economic Policy
The New Economic Policy was not a betrayal of the October Revolution. Moreover, it was a necessary step backwards in order to protect the ideals and values of the revolution.
Nikolai Milosevic, 2013.

The Barcelona May Days
The Spanish Republic was supported primarily by the Soviet Union, which in the early days of the Civil War provided weapons and armoured vehicles. Thus, Soviet advisors possessed nearly limitless power within the republic.
Alex Bareham, 2011

The Rape of Nanking;
With the benefit of over 50 years’ hindsight however, there appears to be some historical consensus on the nature and extent of the extraordinary cruelty and brutality perpetrated by the Japanese military on the Chinese soldiers and civilians they conquered.
Isobel Egan, 2011

1939 - 1960


The Road to Auschwitz
It is important to understand which aspects of “the road to Auschwitz” and the “Final Solution” were deliberate and planned, and which were sometimes hasty reactions to events. Romola Packard Hill, 2009

Battle of Stalingrad: The Turning Point
In June 1941, Nazi Germany began a full-scale invasion of the Soviet Union, codenamed ‘Operation Barbarossa’. Hitler had been planning the invasion of Russia for some time and saw it as part of his plan for providing Germany with ‘Lebensraum’ or living space.
Harry Dalton, 2012

Japan's war with the United States
Less than two hours after Japanese planes first flew over the American naval base of Pearl Harbor on the morning of the 7th of December 1941, 19 ships and 120 aircraft had been destroyed or disabled, and more than 2,400 American lives had been lost. Hannah Cliff, 2007.

Curtin, Churchill and Australian Foreign Policy
The Pacific War brought the Australian PM into conflict with the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. Curtin and Churchill exchanged heated words over the fall of Singapore and the collapse of Australian defence policy and engaged in what is now known as the 'Cable Wars' over the deployment of Australian troops in 1942.
Ellen Trevanion, 2011

The Significance of Kokoda
The campaign saved Australia from being isolated from the US, and possibly invaded by Japan. Even if the Japanese were not to invade immediately, it prevented the risk of Australia being in a vulnerable position. Also, Kokoda boosted Australian pride.
Nicholas Chan, 2011.

Did Japan Intend to Invade Australia? Evidence taken directly from Japanese military sources prove that they were not set on an invasion of mainland Australia during the Second World War. Duncan Grey, 2010.

An Australian soldier in Sicily 1943. Publication of the memoirs of Lt. John Erskine, 3 Commando, 8th Army, 1943. The memoirs describe Lt. Erskine's experiences in two battles during Operation Husky, namely the initial landing at George Beach and the later Commando raid on the Malati bridge. John Erskine passed away in 2010. His work was published on CLIO in 2013

3 Commando at Malati Bridge, 1943.
An account of the Commando action at Punta dei Malati in Sicily, July 1943, derived from three eye-witness accounts.This paper was delivered at a lecture in the BSA Systems Theatre at the Australian War Memorial in March 2014.
John Hood 2014

The Causes of the Cold War
From 1945 to 1991 the United States and the Soviet Union were locked in a cold war. Conditions at the end of the Second World War made ongoing hostility between the US and the USSR inevitable. However, the threat of mutually assured destruction meant that this hostility would not take the form of direct military conflict between the two superpowers.
Isobel Egan, 2011.

Letter From West Berlin
The Soviets are trying to force the Western Allies to abandon their occupation of West Berlin by making it impossible for them to supply us with necessities. Vater says that Stalin has lost his mind completely, and that if he wants to control all of Berlin then starving half its people to death is not the way to go about it.
Claudia Dyball, 2011

The Partition of India
The partition was not solely a religious matter, nor solely political. There was no one person who caused it, nor one single event. The Muslim population of India grew concerned as the idea of Indian independence grew realistic, as the Hindu majority would almost certainly gain control. Livvi Hatfield, 2011.

The Story of Partition
This separation, an attempt to quell religious turmoil and safeguard cultural rights, has done little to prevent conflict between Hindu Indians and Muslim Pakistanis.
Margaret Palazzo, 2012

The Chinese Communist Party's Seizure of Power
The Chinese Communists were victorious in 1949 due to remarkable perseverance and the shrewd adaptation of Marxist ideas to Chinese circumstances. Lindsay Nailer, 2009.

Maoism and Classic Marxism
The ideologies of Mao Zedong and Russian socialist counterparts, Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin, are analogous in terms of fundamental revolutionary aspirations yet particularly contrasting in their mode of fulfilment. James Batchelor, 2009.

The Prelude to Petrov
A reply to Francesca Neely's 'Menzies and the Petrov Affair'. John Greenwell, 2011.

Menzies and the Petrov Affair
The effects of the Petrov Affair on Australian politics were entirely to Menzies’ benefit, although this was chiefly through the faults of his opponents rather than his own masterly use of the issues raised.
Francesca Neely, 2010.