Contents | Ancient | Early Medieval | Medieval | Renaissance | Modern | Contemporary


The early Renaissance 1380 - 1492

Lorenzo de Medici and the peace of Renaissance Italy
Contemporary sources agree that Lorenzo de Medici, the 'first citizen' of the republic of Florence, was responsible to a large extent for the peace of all Italy, particularly from the late 1470s. Emma Thomas 1999.

The Renaissance life of Lucrezia Borgia
According to Ferdinand Gregorovius, Lucrezia Borgia was "the unluckiest woman in history" and many factors certainly support the idea that a lot of tragedy befell her.
Claire Thompson 1999.

Lucrezia Borgia, a new assessment
The life and personality of Lucrezia Borgia remains an enigma.
Callum Scott-Doyle 2007.

The scandalous reputation of Pope Alexander VI
Many medieval and renaissance Popes have been charged with criminal and immoral profiles throughout the ages, and none more so than Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia.
Melissa Walton 2007.

Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick
A key figure on the side of York during the first fifteen years of this conflict was Richard Neville, the Earl of Warwick. Rebecca Smith 1999.

The Public Perception of Isabella d'Este
As Marchesa of Mantua, d’Este was a member of the elite nobility. She utilised her exceptional people skills and masses of written correspondence to further her own interests as well as the interests of Mantua.
Lauren George 2009.

Caterina Sforza and the defence of Forli
Caterina Sforza Riario was born in 1463, the illegitimate daughter of Galeazzo Maria Sforza and his mistress Lucrezia Landriani.
Callum Scott-Doyle 2007.

Henry Tudor's victory at Bosworth
The Battle of Bosworth was a victory for Henry Tudor and signified the end of the civil wars known as the “Wars of the Roses.”
Alyssa Morrissey 2007.

Reformation and National Monarchies 1490 - 1600

Columbus, governor of the New World
If one examines aspects of Columbus’s turbulent career, especially his leadership, it becomes apparent that whilst he was an effective leader at sea, he often lacked the appropriate leadership skills on shore.
Ilnaz Roomiani 1996.

15th Century Spanish and Portuguese Exlporation
The central feature of world history between late 15th Century and 1700 was the expansion of Europe and the spread of European culture and civilisation throughout the globe. Dylan Singh 2007.

The Achievements of the Florentine Renaissance
The vision of Giotto was the catalyst for an artistic revolution in Florence. Over the duration of the Renaissance, painting was transformed from church ornamentation to a form of individual human expression.
Rosina Hawkins, 2011

The Birth of English Literature
The invention of moveable type, the English Reformation and the work of brilliant playwrights like Shakespeare all played a role in the blossoming of written English.
Gemma Matheson, 2011.

The Portuguese discovery of Australia
Great debate abounds concerning the possibility of a European discovery of Australia prior to 1606.
Snowy Haiblen 2007.

Niccolo Tartaglia and the cubic equation
Tartaglia is regarded as one of the more important contributors to the progress of mathematical knowledge in the sixteenth century and, in particular, the development of algebra.
John Hood 2005.

The Career and Trial of Thomas More
The trial and execution of Thomas More was a clear miscarriage of justice. When Henry decided that the Church of England would break from the Catholic Church and that all his subjects had to acknowledge him as the head of the Church, conflict between the two men followed. More, due to his strong beliefs, would not support Henry’s changes.
Blaise Joseph 2009.

The Suppression of Glastonbury Abbey
Due to the extensive records kept during the dissolution of the monasteries, historians have largely been able to establish what happened when. But exactly why the monasteries were dissolved has remained a source of contention over the years. For hundreds of years after the event, most historians had either a Catholic or Protestant bias in their views.
Michael O'Malley 2011.

On the Death of Edward VI
I am unsure how to begin to properly express my feelings, except to say that I feel more grieved then I ever thought possible. News arrived not two days ago that my darling brother and King, Edward, had finally succumbed to illness and passed into the care of God.
Claudia Dyball, 2011

Sofonisba Anguissola
Sofonisba Anguissola is sometimes thought to have been an obscure and unimportant artist from the Renaissance era. This view contradicts the evidence from her own lifetime, the secondary sources, and the paintings by her hand.
Tess Cole-Adams 2007.

The policies of Catherine of Aragon and Mary Tudor
Spanish Catholicism had a significant impact on the reigns of Catherine of Aragon and Mary Tudor.
Catherine Spare, 2007.

The political skills of Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I succeeded to the English throne as a result of exceptional political skill. When Henry VIII died, she was by no means.
Emma Thomas, 1999.

Spanish Power in the 16th Century
The military might of Spain was one of the most formidable in Europe during the 16th Century and it is possibly the most tangible measure of Spain’s power. It was used repeatedly to create and enforce their religious influence, most notably in the battle of Lepanto. Jordan Rocke, 2012.

Dawn of the Modern World 1600 - 1700

Don Quixote and the decline of Spain
Miguel de Cervantes’ two-part novel of 1604, Don Quixote, is a strong symbol and prediction of the decline of the Golden Age of Spain in the seventeenth century.
Alexander Osborne 2007.